Which Supplements Do What

  • NOTE: There are almost fifty supplements on the list. I don’t take them all every day. But I do take some from each category every day (unless it’s one of those rare days where I decide not to take anything).
  • People will often bring up the cost of supplements. To me it’s worth taking them, but I know this may not be a choice for everyone. One way to save money, if you do decide to supplement, is to buy in bulk. (Powders are always much cheaper than capsules.) This costs more initially but much less per “serving.”
  • I economize when I can, but it’s important to me to use high quality ones. I buy mainly from reputable companies such as Jarrow, Gaia, Biogaia, and Donotage.
  • I’ve set up  an arrangement with Donotage which you can use if you’d like. If you buy supplements from them, use the discount code PATHWAYS to get a10 percent discount. Buying through them is also a way of supporting the work I’m doing in the anti-aging community. If you buy using the PATHWAYS code, you’ll get the discount and I will also receive a small payment. They also have free shipping if your order totals more than $500 USD.
  • If I were new at anti-aging, I would probably start by taking three or four in each category. I’ve made a note indicating which three or four I would take if I had to choose.



  • NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is essential to DNA repair. Its levels decline as we age.
  • Dr. David Sinclair of Harvard University believes the decline in NAD and in sirtuin gene activation may be a primary cause of aging. Sinclair also believes that it’s important that if we take NAD precursors, we also take a sirtuin activator such as resveratrol or olive oil along with it.
  • Note that there are ways to boost NAD (and activate sirtuin genes) which don’t involve taking supplements. The ones that I do include HIIT exercise, strength training, fasting, cold showers, saunas and supplements to boost NAD.
  • The ones I’m currently taking are listed below. I always take the first four supplements on this list; I sometimes also take the others.
  • MOST IMPORTANT: The first five on the list.

  1. NMN (Donotage) –––– (NMN is a NAD precursor. NAD molecules are too big to fit through cell walls. Research has shown though the NMN can pass through the walls with the help of a transporter in the human gut, where the NAD is assembled into NAD. (1.5 grams)
  2. TMG (Donotage)  –––– (TMG restores methyls used up when NMN, niacin, NR or other NAD precursor molecules are metabolized) (1 gram)
  3. OLIVE OIL (Swanson) –––– (contains oleic acid, which activates sirtuins) Note: I also eat avocados, which are rich in oleic acid (2 grams)
  4. APIGENIN ––– Apigenin prevents an enzyme called CD-38 to destroy NAD in the body. So it’s as important, in my opinion, as taking precursors. Food sources of apigenin include parsley celery and chamomile. I’ll sometimes take an apigenin supplement (from Donotage); other times I’ll eat some parsley or drink some chamomile tea.
  5. RESVERATROL (Donotage) –––– (activates sirtuin genes) I’m currently taking 500 mg. There’s some evidence that larger doses may be toxic.
  6. MCT OIL (Youn-Glo) –––– improves NAD+/NADH ratio (I usually mix a scoop of MCT oil powder in my coffee) (There’s also evidence that the ketones our bodies make when we use MCT oil may be protective against Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.)
  7. QUERCETIN (Donotage) –––– activates sirtuins
  8. FISETIN (Donotage) –––– brain health; activates sirtuins
  9. RUTIN (NOW) –––– activates sirtuins (100 mg)
  10. ALPHA LIPOIC ACID –––– improves NAD+/NADH ratio (1200 mg)
  11. UBIQUINOL (COQ10) (Jarrow) –––– supports mitochondria; improves NAD+/NADH ratio. 200 mg. 
  12. PQQ (Health Through Nutrition) –––– triggers mitochondrial biogenesis (100 mg)
  13. PAU D’ARCO (Mercola) –––– rich in D. lapachone; improves NAD+/NADH ratio – 1 Capsule



My T levels started declining when I was in my 50s. I was able to raise them by exercising, improving my diet and adding the supplements below. My level is now over 826 ng/dL, the highest it’s been since I started testing it. It shot up almost 300 points in 2020, when I added strength training to my regimen.

I take several of the supplements below every day. They are all beneficial, but if I had to take just a few, I’d take DHEA and 7-Keto DHEA, Male Libido, Astragalus, Ashwagandha, fish oil and L. Reuteri 6475. (But it would honestly be hard to choose, as I’ve gotten so much benefit from taking the others.)

  1. DHEA ––– DHEA was an ingredient in the TRIIM trial which reversed epigenetic aging 2.5 years over a one year trial period. It’s a prohormone, a precursor to testosterone (though it can also turn into estrogen)
  2. 7-KETO DHEA ––– 7 Keto is a metabolite of DHEA which doesn’t affect testosterone, but I like taking them together
  3. MALE LIBIDO (Gaia) ––– 2 caps (contains numerous herbs found to boost testosterone in lab animals.)
  5. ASTRAGALUS (Gaia)––– (Gaia) Both astragalus and ashwagandha are powerful anti-aging adaptogens good for anti-aging and testosterone and raising T cells. (Don’t take them during a prolonged (3-5 day) fast because they can prevent the body from finding and killing off senescent cells.)
  6. L. REUTERI 6475 (BioGaia Osfortis) ––– Many men who are trying to raise their T levels take it because it increases size of testicles in lab animals, significantly increasing the production of testosterone. Women may want to take L. Reuteri 6475 too, as it improves bone strength and density, particularly in elderly women. Other strains of L. Reuteri have not been shown to have these benefits. (Note: I take L. Reuteri with INULIN ––––  1 tsp – prebiotic (Organic Inulin Powder from Micro Ingredients) (because probiotics use prebiotics for food) (if you take probiotic supplements without prebiotics on fasting days, they’ll die off; they need food.) (I also take Swanson L. Gasseri as a supplement.)
  7. FISH OIL ––– I take fish oil these for brain health, heart health, testosterone levels, and testicular health. It increases blood levels of Omega 3. Like L. Reuteri 6475, it increases testosterone and increase testicular size.
  8. KRILL OIL ––– also increases blood levels of Omega 3
  9. BORON –––– 2 mg. Boron is essential but do not overdose – can be deadly.
  10. SELENOMETHIONINE (Thorne) –––– 200 mcg. Boosts T levels. Improves sperm health and motility. Counteracts the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and thallium. Do not overdose – can be toxic.
  11. ASTAXANTHIN (Bioastin) –––– (4 four-mg. capsules) Prevents sunburn if taken internally. Increase T levels if taken with saw palmetto, according to one study.
  12. SAW PALMETTO (Organic) (Wild Mountain Thyme) 
  13. NIACIN –––– has many uses, including increasing testosterone levels and regulating cholesterol levels and raising NAD. Caution: can cause flushing (temporary red/prickly/itchy skin) and can raise blood glucose. The sustained release kind can cause liver damage if taken in large amounts. I take the instant release kind. I take it with chromium, right before resistance training, to counteract the blood glucose problem.



All of these are wonderful for brain health. Several are also good for skin health. If I had to choose only five, I’d go with the first five on the list.

  1. HYALURONIC ACID – Donotage –––– HA prevents brain shrinkage as we age. Also good for smoother skin and fewer wrinkles. (When taken orally it hydrates the dermal layer of the skin, causing a plumping effect which makes wrinkles less visible.)
        1. NOTE: I have noticed two effects since taking this product. The first was smoother, more elastic skin. Some surface wrinkles have smoothed out, presumably because of the hydrating effect.
        2. The other effect, which totally surprised me, was how rapidly two recent injuries healed. I was moving a piece of heavy exercise equipment in my home gym, and didn’t notice two bolts protruding from the back of it. They scraped my legs as I moved it, leaving 2″ gashes on both legs and drawing blood. The healing began literally overnight. Four days later, there was almost nothing left of the gashes except a very slight discoloration where the injuries had been. There was never any swelling, and no pain except in the moment of injury. The only other treatment I did was rubbing a little aloe vera gel on the injuries after they had healed over.
  2. VITAMIN C (liposomal) – Mercola. I usually take 1 gram along with the HA because vitamin C further raises HA levels in the body.
  3. BIOTIN ––– good for skin health. I often take it along with hyaluronic acid.
  4. PS (PHOSPHATIDYL SERINE) – Jarrow –––– PS is good for brain health, mood and memory (I also eat lots of Atlantic mackerel, low-mercury tuna, and great northern beans, which are very high in PS)
  5. PANTHETHINE – Jarrow –––– a derivative of pantothenic acid. Lowers triglycerides. Raises HDL. Great for immunity. I like taking it with a teaspoon of royal jelly. (I also eat a teaspoon of royal jelly on my feasting days) (goes well with PS) Jarrow is a highly respected brand; I highly recommend their products.
  6. MAGNESIUM THREONATE – Jarrow –––– for brain health. The only form of magnesium that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Has been shown to greatly slow brain aging.
  7. TAURINE –– for brain health 
  8. LOW DOSE LITHIUM –––– I take a micro-dose, only 5 mg. Has been shown to have numerous benefits for brain health and in slowing brain aging.
  9. GREEN TEA for EGCG –––– I don’t take a supplement, I just drink some green or white tea.
  10. POLYPODIUM LEUCOTOMOS ––– prevents skin damage from sunburn.
  11. LECITHIN –––– A good source of phospholipids, good for brain health


The TRIIM trial was based around giving volunteers injections of hGH (human growth hormone), along with oral metformin, zinc, vitamin D and DHEA.  When taken together, the evidence suggests that they rejuvenated the thymus gland and reversed epigenetic aging in participants.

It’s not legal in the United States to use hGH injections for anti-aging purposes. Till this changes, we have the option of taking supplements which raise hGH.


  1. Going to bed before 10 pm is one of the most effective ways of increasing our hGH naturally. This is because there’s a huge spike in hGH that occurs around 10 or 11 pm. But it only occurs if we’re asleep. (For best results, turn off all blue light devices around 9 a.m., then crash out by 9:30 or 10.)
  2. FASTING boosts hGH.
  3. EXERCISING boosts hGH.


  1. MELATONIN (0.3 mg) also boosts hGH. (I take it at night because it increases hGH and also promotes sleep)
  2. AKG (Double Wood) –––– (4 capsules) or AAKG (NUTRI-COST) (2 scoops). (AAKG is a salt of arginine and AKG.) I suspect that the AKG is what caused my body hair to go from white to brown.
  3. AAKG (NUTRI-COST) (2 scoops). A salt of arginine and AKG. Because arginine and exercise can negate some of each others’ benefits, I usually take it four hours after workouts. (Boosts testosterone, hGH and AKG)
  4. CREATINE –– 
  5. BETA ALANINE  –– 
  6. BERBERINE and/or METFORMIN  – Neither of them increases hGH, but they were part of the TRIIM Trial protocol because htey lower blood glucose, lower mTOR and activate AMPK. I sometimes just take berberine, but sometimes add in metformin. I take them with my last meal on my feasting days. I don’t take (usually) them on my fasting days because fasting itself has the same effects. Note: I sometimes also sometimes use Ceylon Cinnamon and Allulose to further lower glucose.
  7. ZINC (30 mg. zinc with 2 mg. copper) (essential to thymus health)
  8. VITAMIN D3 (Donotage) (Essential for many reasons.) (Comes in a formula with magnesium)
  9. MULTIVITAMIN/MINERAL – I take a multi to avoid getting micronutrient deficiencies on fasting days. (It’s not part of the TRIIM trial regimen, just a convenient time to take it)


Glutathione has many benefits, including reducing oxidative stress; improving insulin resistance; reducing cell damage in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; reducing symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It’s similar to NAD in that our bodies are high in it when we’re young, but levels drop as we age.
Things that can raise glutathione levels naturally include:
  1. NAC ––– N. Acetyl Cysteine (I take Jarrow NAC, both for clear breathing at night and to raise glutathione levels
  2. GLYCINE ––– works synergistically with NAC
  3. SULFORAPHANE –– The brand I take is Avamocol. Found in mature broccoli, broccoli sprouts and broccoli seeds. Raises levels of glutathione in the plasma and the brain.
  4. SELENIUM ––– I take selenomethionine, but all forms of selenium raise glutathione levels. Foods rich in selenium may be more effective than the supplement.
  5. TURMERIC ––– has anti-inflammatory properties, and boosts glutathione
  6. MILK THISTLE ––– boosts glutathione and also lowers blood glucose.


  1. SERRAPEPTASE –– Cleans protein fragments from blood. Also great for relieving sinus congestion. I usually take it at night to clear my breathing.
  2. NATTOKINASE –– A highly beneficial enzyme, found in a type of fermented soy called natto. I take it once a week or so.
  3. BORAGE OIL and BLACK CURRANT SEED OIL –– I take both of these for GLA, to support the formation of new blood platelets.
  4. BLOOD DONATION –– I also donate blood several times a years, both for altruistic reasons and because donating removes iron that can build up in the blood, and also removes old blood factors and forces the body to make new (young) blood cells to replace what was lost. I take extra doses of borage oil, black currant oil and taurine (necessary for new cell creation) after donating.


  1. ELDERBERRY –––– Elderberry’s good for immunity. Night’s a convenient time to take it. I sweeten it with a little allulose, which lowers blood glucose.
  2. VITAMIN C (LIPOSOMAL) –––– (I like Mercola’s best but sometimes take other brands). I take it because it detoxifies NAD and raises collagen.  – 2 grams
  3. NAC (regular and sustained release) (Jarrow) –––– (for clear breathing when I’m sleeping) 
  4. MELATONIN –––– I take a very tiny microdose, 0.3 to 0.6 mg at night, because it both raises hGH and promotes sleep. When I take it, I usually sleep better, longer and deeper.

10 percent discount on supplements. Discount Code: PATHWAYS

  • A few months ago, I set up a discount agreement with Donotage.org.
  • If you use the Discount Code PATHWAYS, you’ll get 10 percent off of everything on their website, including all of their supplements, their NAD test and their epigenetic aging test.
  • Free shipping is available on orders over $400 USD, 300 Euros or 500 AUD. 
  • See this page for more information.

I’ll be adding more info to this section soon:

Supplements I take on FASTING and HIIT DAYS (M, W, F). I do HIIT exercise on these days, but on a stationary bike with almost no resistance. My goal of HIIT is not muscle building but creating an oxygen deficit to activate my sirtuin genes. I also do cold showers on these days.

  • NAD BOOSTERS: NMN. Resveratrol, Berberine. 

Supplements I take on RESISTANCE EXERCISE DAYS (T, Th, Sat.):

  • NAD BOOSTERS: Niacin + chromium.

Supplements I take on my RECOVERY DAY (Sunday):

  • NAD BOOSTERS: NMN. Resveratrol, Berberine.
  • BLOOD GLUCOSE: Berberine for AMPK activation.